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Feb 27, 2009

Community Organizing Participatory Action Research (COPAR) Nursing

Community Organizing Participatory Action Research (COPAR) - is a continuous and a sustained process of:

  1. Educating the people - to understand and develop their critical consiousness
  2. Working with people - to work collectively and effectively on their immediate and long term problems
  3. Mobilizing with people - develop their capability and readiness to respond, take action on their immediate needs towards solving the long term problems
The process and structure through which members of a community are/or become organized for participation in health care and community development activities

Process:
- the sequence of steps whereby members of a community come together to critically assess to evaluate community conditions and work together to improve those conditions.

Structure:
- refers to a particular group of community members that work together for a common health and health related goals.

Emphasis of COPAR:
  1. Community working to solve its own problem
  2. Direction is established internally and externally
  3. Development and implementation of a specific project less important than the development of the capacity of the community to establish the project
  4. Consciousness raising involves perceiving health and medical care within the total structure of society
Importance of COPAR:
  • COPAR maximizes community participation and involvement
  • COPAR could be an alternative in situations wherein health interventions in Public Health Care do not require direct involvement of modern medical practitioners
  • COPAR gets people actively involved in selection and support of community health workers
  • Through COPAR, community resources are mobilized for selected health services
  • COPAR improves both projects effectiveness during implementation
Phases of COPAR Process:

1. Pre-Entry Phase - is the intial phase of the organizing process where the community organizer looks for communities to serve and help. Acitivities include:

Preparation of the Institution

    • Train faculty and students in COPAR.
    • Formulate plans for institutionalizing COPAR.
    • Revise/enrich curriculum and immersion program.
    • Coordinate participants of other departments.

Site Selection

    • Initial networking with local government.
    • Conduct preliminary special investigation.
    • Make long/short list of potential communities.
    • Do ocular survey of listed communities.

Criteria for Initial Site Selection

    • Must have a population of 100-200 families.
    • Economically depressed.
    • No strong resistance from the community.
    • No serious peace and order problem.
    • No similar group or organization holding the same program.

Identifying Potential Municipalities

    • Make long/short list.

Identifying Potential Barangay

    • Do the same process as in selecting municipality.
    • Consult key informants and residents.
    • Coordinate with local government and NGOs for future activities.

Choosing Final Barangay

    • Conduct informal interviews with community residents and key informants.
    • Determine the need of the program in the community.
    • Take note of political development.
    • Develop community profiles for secondary data.
    • Develop survey tools.
    • Pay courtesy call to community leaders.
    • Choose foster families based on guidelines.

Identifying Host Family

    • House is strategically located in the community.
    • Should not belong to the rich segment.
    • Respected by both formal and informal leaders.
    • Neighbors are not hesitant to enter the house.
    • No member of the host family should be moving out in the community.

2. Entry Phase - sometimes called the social preparation phase. Is crucial in determining which strategies for organizing would suit the chosen community. Success of the activities depend on how much the community organizers has integrated with the commuity.

Guidelines for Entry

    • Recognize the role of local authorities by paying them visits to inform their presence and activities.
    • Her appearance, speech, behavior and lifestyle should be in keeping with those of the community residents without disregard of their being role model.
    • Avoid raising the consciousness of the community residents; adopt a low-key profile.

Activities in the Entry Phase

    • Integration - establishing rapport with the people in continuing effort to imbibe community life.
      • living with the community
      • seek out to converse with people where they usually congregate
      • lend a hand in household chores
      • avoid gambling and drinking
    • Deepening social investigation/community study
      • verification and enrichment of data collected from initial survey
      • conduct baseline survey by students, results relayed through community assembly

Core Group Formation

    • Leader spotting through sociogram.

      Key persons - approached by most people
      Opinion leader - approach by key persons
      Isolates - never or hardly consulted

3. Organization-building Phase

Entails the formation of more formal structure and the inclusion of more formal procedure of planning, implementing, and evaluating community-wise activities. It is at this phase where the organized leaders or groups are being given training (formal, informal, OJT) to develop their style in managing their own concerns/programs.

Key Activities

    • Community Health Organization (CHO)
      • preparation of legal requirements
      • guidelines in the organization of the CHO by the core group
      • election of officers
    • Research Team Committee
    • Planning Committee
    • Health Committee Organization
    • Others
    • Formation of by-laws by the CHO


4. Sustenance and Strengthening Phase

Occurs when the community organization has already been established and the community members are already actively participating in community-wide undertakings. At this point, the different committees setup in the organization-building phase are already expected to be functioning by way of planning, implementing and evaluating their own programs, with the overall guidance from the community-wide organization.

Key Activities

    • Training of CHO for monitoring and implementing of community health program.
    • Identification of secondary leaders.
    • Linkaging and networking.
    • Conduct of mobilization on health and development concerns.
    • Implementation of livelihood projects.

43 comments:

Anonymous March 16, 2009 at 4:35 AM  

Thanks for this database... i guess it's a bit late to see this, but still, helpful ;) hope i pass that evaluative exam... ;)

Anonymous July 30, 2009 at 6:41 AM  

thank u for the info ... i hope that this data would be updated for future readers...

Anonymous August 5, 2009 at 2:33 AM  

question...is there such thing as Community Planning Phase in COPAR???

I am sorry...it's either my instructor said it wrong or I didn't hear it right...

JanMck Hilado August 14, 2009 at 1:16 AM  

Nope, the one stated above are the only phases in COPAR

Anonymous August 16, 2009 at 6:30 AM  

can anyone help me
i cannot find the different levels in commmunity participation.

Anonymous September 10, 2009 at 1:22 AM  

is community diagnosis one of the phases?

Anonymous November 17, 2009 at 5:01 AM  

that database are only example.but this is more effective if we will apply on actual process

madhel January 14, 2010 at 6:01 PM  

thanks much for this information. it does help a lot. :D

Anonymous January 20, 2010 at 7:01 PM  

what institution or who is the person behind the Copar and when did it started??

Ponce Kristian Jaris January 23, 2010 at 5:34 AM  

why is it that action phase is not included in this COPAR?

Anonymous February 3, 2010 at 12:51 AM  

i just want to know what makes the difference between CO-PAR and Social Work's Community Organization method? or is there no difference at all, only that CO-PAR is more used term in Health related professions? pls contact me in my e-mail.. ldp_aaquino@yahoo.com thank you :)

Anonymous June 28, 2010 at 5:12 AM  

tnx...vry helpful :)

Anonymous August 30, 2010 at 2:44 AM  

THANX.. it really helps me a lot.. :)

Anonymous October 7, 2010 at 4:00 AM  

Is it really true that there is a CORE GROUP PHASE? Any?

Anonymous November 11, 2010 at 7:13 AM  

why is phase out not included?

Anonymous December 13, 2010 at 10:54 PM  

I THINK THERE IS 6 PHASES OF COPAR....:)

Anonymous January 27, 2011 at 12:35 AM  

I really cant understand COPAR.....

Anonymous February 3, 2011 at 12:47 AM  

sino Author nyan?

Anonymous February 18, 2011 at 4:07 AM  

hey, tnx for this. it really helped me a lot...

Anonymous March 3, 2011 at 8:02 PM  

this article is really of great help... hope i can pass our exams today!:)

Anonymous March 26, 2011 at 7:30 PM  

these phases are the only phases according to the book of David.

Anonymous May 2, 2011 at 6:25 PM  

thanks a lot for the info.i think there are 4, 5 and 6 phases of COPAR depending upon the source of your information. community action planning is one of the many phases in a 5 or 6 phase COPAR.books are limited but there are 2 as far as i know (Maglaya and the other one was written by a nun, sorry i forgot).

Anonymous May 6, 2011 at 1:15 AM  

it will help me alot. thanks!

Ardnaxe January 23, 2012 at 12:23 PM  

Hello everyone,

I got a question regarding the way to assess the effectiveness of COPAR. Is there a way to evaluate its effectiveness?

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