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Dec 13, 2008

AGING NOTES

Immunologically speaking
 Aging is primarily due to cessation of some organs to produce hormones
 Prone to develop various types of allergies and easily develops infection brought by alteration in immune defenses or altered immune system

NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM
 Bones becomes brittle
 Decreases elasticity of muscle tension
 Often dies as a result of falls & not due to aging

Implementation: Neurological
 Maintain safety precaution
o Evaluate reflex reactions to protect against accidents
o Evaluate level of alertness
 Monitor dietary intake and fluid intake
 Provide adequate lightings to prevent falls
o Natural lighting best
o Avoid glare
o Night light at all times in bathroom halls
 Encourage sensory stimulation
o Large print books
o Changes in environment
o Colors client can see
 Maintain reality orientation
o Calendars
o Clocks
o One-to-one visits
 Keep client warm – prevent hypothermia
 Check sedative or hypnotic abuse for poor sleep patterns
 Check for anti-depressant drugs

Implementation: Musculoskeletal
 Ambulate within limitations
 Change in position q 20, align correctly
 Prevent osteoporosis by providing exercises against resistance, calcium, Vitamin D supplements
 Provide active and passive exercises
o Rest periods necessary
o Paced throughout the day
 ROM exercises to all joints 3x a day
 Educate family that allowing client to be sedentary is not helpful
 Encourage walking, best single exercise for elderly & swimming

CARDIAC RHYTHM
 Decreased heartbeat = low blood volume = easy fatigability

Implementation: Cardiac
 Monitor vital signs – Pulse, BP
o Apical pulse for 1 minute so premature heartbeats are not missed
o Take BP in both arms
 Monitor medications: digitalis, diuretics
 Maintain dietary restrictions: low salt diet
 Change position slowly, from horizontal to vertical, to prevent hypotensive reaction
 Maintain circulatory homeostasis
o Encourage activity to increase circulatory stimulation: leg exercise, leg elevation while sittiung
o Provide warmth by applying blankets and clothing
o Use gentle friction during baths
o Avoid tight-restrictive clothing

RESPIRATORY AND CIRCULATORY FUNCTION
 Decreased due to wear & tear phenomenon

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