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Nov 15, 2008

ONCOLOGY NURSING NOTES

Cancer- abnormal cell growth in the body
 rapidly dividing cell
 60% with pain
 Cause: UNKNOWN

Common cellular terms used in alterations
• Hyperplasia- increase in the # of cell
• Hypertrophy- increase in the size of the cell
o Frequently used inflammation
o DILANTIN (Phenytoin) – gingival hyperplasia
o Nursing Responsibility: oral care, soft bristled tooth-brush
• Atrophy- decrease in size of cell
• Metaplasia- conversion of one type of cell into another type
o Normal lung is line with epithelial cell  smoke change into epithelial cell
• Dysplasia- disorganized cell – change of size, shape and function
• Anaplasia- complete undifferentiation of the cell
o Differentiation- ability of the daughter cell to copy the characteristics of the parent cell
o MOST MALIGNANT
• Neoplasm- mutant change in the cell

Categories of Malignant Neoplasm
1. Carcinoma – epithelial cell  all linings of organs, SKIN ca Basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma
2. Sarcoma- connective tissue – bone, joints, cartilage, muscle, fats, skin, blood vessels
3. Lymphoma- Lymphatic tissue  Hodgkin’s Disease
4. Leukemia/Myeloma- blood-forming organs  bone-marrow
5. Adenocarcinoma – glandular tissue- mucous glands

Pathogenesis
1. Cellular Transformation and Derangement Theory – environmental & exposure to carcinogen
2. Failure of immune Response Theory- physiologic

AGE- single most important risk factor for Ca

Carcinogenesis
1. Infiltration Stage- 1st time that normal cell is exposed to carcinogen
 Genetic change- still reversible
2. Promotion – subsequent exposure to carcinogen
 Dysplacia – anaplastic cell
3. Progression stage- irreversible change in the cell metastasize

Metastases- spread of Ca cells to other organs
 Area with increase vascularity or increase in blood supply
 Nearest organ
Primary site- where the Ca develops originally

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1 comments:

eros November 18, 2008 at 9:43 PM  

how wonderful na idol mo si bro. bo. i was inspired by him spiritually and financially. have you read his books 8 secrets of truly rich? i've attended his seminars about financial literacy. it's so informative. im sure alm mo na ng compound money of interest. have you hear the i.m.g. there in cebu?

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